： (Datong, Liao and Jin, Minority)
The ancient Datong was located in the border areas with Hu to the north and the central plain to the south, having been a place of great military importance and ethnic integration since ancient times. Khitan people, led by Yelv Abaoji (Emperor Taizu of the Liao), rose in the early 10th century and established their country- the Liao, conquered the north and approached the central plain aggressively. In the Five Dynasties period, Khitan acquired “Yanyun sixteen states” from Shi Jingtang of the Later Tang Dynasty, among which Yunzhou was today’s Datong. Datong military-political governor was set at the beginning, and in year 13 of Chongxi reign of the Liao Dynasty (in 1044), Yunzhou was promoted to be the Western Capital, besides the Datongfu of Xijingdao was set to administrate all areas of today’s Datong and Shuozhou as well as part of Inner Mongolia and Hebei province. Datong, as the Western Capital of the Liao, guarded Southwestern strategic hub in a situation of tripartite confrontation of the Liao, the Song and the Western Xia Regime. Datong was also the Western Capital of the Jin set by Jurchen people in 1125, and had been severed as a co-capital for about 190 years until the downfall of the Jin. Over the hundred years, co-capital of the Liao and Jin Dynasties generated wonderful and unique regional culture of the Western Capital from the fusion of nomadic grassland culture and agricultural civilization of the central plain. The prosperity and boom of Datong, whether as the Western Capital of the Liao and Jin or as a legendary Buddhist capital, was fully characterized by glittering and colorful ceramics, enjoyable and gorgeous folk customs, terrific and vivid murals as well as splendid and magnificent Buddhist architectures. Along with the development of archaeological excavation and cultural relics collection, bronzes, iron wares, potteries, porcelains, gold and silver wares, furniture and sculptures of the Liao and Jin Dynasties were continually exposed to the public, gradually presents distinguishing elegance of the Western Capital. Hunting in autumn and winter, farming in spring and summer, tea-wine feast and interior entertainment are the characteristics of Hu and Han. The fusion of expansive and unrestrained ethnic minorities as well as elegant and restrained Han people in the central plain both generated the distinctive and profound civil history of the Liao and Jin in the Western Capital district.
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